By Alan P. Parkes

ISBN-10: 1848001207

ISBN-13: 9781848001206

This easy-to-follow textual content offers an obtainable creation to the most important themes of formal languages and summary machines inside of machine technological know-how. the writer follows the profitable formulation of his first publication in this topic, this time making those center computing subject matters extra basic and supplying a great origin for undergraduates.

The ebook is split into components, Languages and Machines and Machines and Computation. the 1st half is anxious with formal language idea, because it applies to desktop technological know-how, while half 2 considers the computational homes of the machines in additional element. this article is intentionally non-mathematical and, anyplace attainable, hyperlinks idea to sensible concerns, specifically the results for programming, computation and challenge fixing. Written in a casual type, this textbook assumes just a uncomplicated wisdom of programming at the a part of the reader.


• transparent factors of formal notation and jargon

• large use of examples to demonstrate algorithms and proofs

• Pictorial representations of key concepts

• Chapter-opening overviews delivering an advent and suggestions to every topic

• An introductory bankruptcy provides the reader with an effective overview

• End-of-chapter routines and solutions

This reader-friendly textbook has been written with undergraduates in brain and may be compatible to be used on classes protecting formal languages, computability, automata thought and computational linguistics. it is going to additionally make a very good supplementary textual content for classes on set of rules complexity and compilers.

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Additional info for A Concise Introduction to Languages and Machines

Example text

E. S ! 9. Provide a regular grammar to generate the language fab, abc, cdg. Hint: make sure your grammar generates only the three given strings, and no others. y Use your answer to exercise 9 as the basis for sketching out an intuitive justification that any finite language is regular. e. that every regular language is finite, is certainly not true. To appreciate this, consider the languages specified in exercise 4. All three languages are both regular and infinite. 1 Overview In this chapter, we consider the following aspects of formal languages, and their particular relevance to programming languages: l the syntax, or grammatical structure, of a sentence l the semantics, or meaning, of a sentence l the graphical representation of derivations by structures called derivation trees l parsing, or trying to discover the grammatical structure of a given sentence l ambiguity, when a sentence in a formal language has more than one possible meaning.

We now have two strings, abbbaSA and abbbaSbAA that are such that the former can be used as a basis for the derivation of the latter by the application of one production rule of the grammar. This is rather a mouthful, even if we replace ‘‘by the application of one production rule of the grammar’’ by the phrase ‘‘in one step’’, so we introduce a symbol to represent this relationship. We write: abbbaSA ) abbbaSbAA: To be absolutely correct, we should give our grammar a name, say G, and write abbbaSA )G abbbaSbAA to denote which particular grammar is being used.

Can we eliminate situations where there is a choice, such as these? For the regular grammars, the answer to all of the above questions is ‘‘yes’’. 58 4. 4 Finite State Recognisers and Finite State Generators For the regular grammars there is a corresponding abstract machine that can achieve the same tasks (parsing and generating) as those supported by the grammar. Moreover, as the structure of the regular grammar is so simple, the corresponding machine is also simple. We call the machine the finite state recogniser (FSR).

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A Concise Introduction to Languages and Machines by Alan P. Parkes

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